Employees as customers: from metaphor to analogy

It’s been interesting to notice the difference between concepts that I thought will be useful to keep in mind, immediately after reading a certain article, and the ones that actually proved out to be useful several months later when I find myself referencing them over and over again.

Of the three insights from Ikujiro Nonaka’s seminal paper The Knowledge-Creating Corporation I find myself using, again and again, his distinction between metaphor and analogy:

One kind of figurative language that is especially important is metaphor. It is a way for individuals grounded in different contexts and with different experiences to understand something intuitively through the use of imagination and symbols without the need for analysis or generalization.Through metaphors, people put together what they know in new ways and begin to express what they know but cannot yet say. As such, metaphor is highly effective in fostering direct commitment to the creative process in the early stages of knowledge creation…

But while metaphor triggers the knowledge-creation process, it alone is not enough to complete it. The next step is analogy. Whereas metaphor is mostly driven by intuition and links images that at first glance seem remote from each other, analogy is a more structured process of reconciling contradictions and making distinctions. Put another way, by clarifying how
the two ideas in one phrase actually are alike and not alike, the contradictions incorporated into metaphors are harmonized by analogy. In this respect, analogy is an intermediate step between pure imagination and logical
thinking.

The context in which it is most present for me right now is thinking about employees as customers, which I’d argue for many organizations is still “stuck” in the metaphor stage of knowledge creation. But before I jump to the opportunity that lies ahead of us, I want to acknowledge the celebration-worthy progress that the current stage represents.

Thinking about employees as customers is a massive step forward compared to the previous organizing metaphor: employee as resources/machines. First and foremost it acknowledges that employees are human beings and need to be treated as such. It reminded us that employees are in choice about their actions: they choose to join, they choose to stay, and they can choose to leave. It also served as a directional inspiration for how to address many employee challenges by borrowing concepts and ideas from the customer domain:

  • Lead generation/business development → Sourcing
  • Sales → Recruiting
  • Sales Marketing → Recruiting Marketing
  • Product brand → Employer brand
  • Product value proposition → Employee value proposition
  • Net Promoter Score (NPS) → employee Net Promoter Score (eNPS)
  • Customer journey/lifecycle → Employee journey/lifecycle
  • Customer onboarding → Employee onboarding
  • etc.

The metaphor continues to provide inspiration to this day, with more customer concepts making their way to the employee domain. A more recent example is recognizing specific “moments that matter” in the customer’s lifecycle, which require special design and attention, as also relevant for employees.

However, while the metaphor continues to move us forward in some ways, its drag, or downside, if you will, is also starting to become more apparent in cultural challenges such as unjustified entitlement or learned helplessness among employees which in turn make efforts to improve the shared working experience somewhere between extremely hard to impossible to execute on.

A more concrete example is the heavy reliance on surveys as the primary means of engaging with employees, a tool that was borrowed directly from the customer domain to the employee domain. Employee interaction needs to be bi-directional and iterative, and it needs to revolve not just around the present state but also around creative problem solving: what each of us can do about it. Yet surveys tend to move the conversation exactly in the opposite direction.

Nonaka’s work paints a clear path forward: moving away from metaphor and towards analogy. While the key focus in the former is around looking for similarities as sources for inspiration, the key focus in the latter is around looking for differences (distinctions) and addressing them, creating a more refined representation of reality.

At the root of most of the customer concepts that get pulled into the employee domain and end up backfiring seem to be a handful of distinctions, ways in which customers and employees are NOT alike. I suspect I’ll continue to refine these over time but here’s what I have so far:

  • The core interaction between customer and service provider has a clear division of roles: I, the customer, have a problem that I’m trying to solve, and you, the service provider, are supposed to provide me with a solution to it. Inside the organization, it’s not that clear cut: we are working to accomplish a shared mission together, and division or roles and authority is more dynamic and less absolute. We are all part of the problem and we are all part of the solution.
  • Cross-customer interaction, as it pertains to the organization, is relatively weak (mostly word-of-mouth reputation) so thinking about the way the organization interacts with each customer in isolation is a pretty accurate description of reality. Cross-employee interaction, as it pertains to the organization is very strong — tight collaboration to accomplish shared goals. So the way the organization interacts with each employee cannot be thought of in isolation.

Acknowledging these differences and designing ways of working together with them in mind is an important frontier in the future of work.

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Employees as customers: from metaphor to analogy

Real-time, Continuous DIB (Diversity, Inclusion, and Belonging)

Photo credit: https://kumu.io/

Author’s note: it’s been a while since I had a chance to write a post completely “from scratch”, not having it based on a particular article or book. This one has been brewing in my head for some time now and I’m excited to share it with you all!

“You can’t manage what you can’t measure.” — Peter Drucker

“If you give a manager a numerical target, he’ll make it even if he has to destroy the company in the process.” –W. Edwards Deming

“Not everything that counts can be counted, and not everything that can be counted counts.” — Bruce Cameron

This trio of quotes captures beautifully the fundamental tension that we’re all trying to navigate when we work hard to make our organizations better. Without a clear measure of progress, it’s hard to know whether we’re making progress and whether our current efforts help advance us towards our goal or move us away from it (Drucker). However, not everything that we care about can be measured (Cameron), and sometimes trying to force the issue and measure something can lead to pretty painful, unintended consequences (Deming).

 The current state of DIB efforts

Nowhere is this tension felt more today than in our collective efforts to make our organizations more diverse and our behaviors more inclusive, fostering a deep sense of belonging among our teammates. Figuring out what to measure and what progress looks like remains a heavily debated topic.

Measuring diversity is becoming a more popular practice because it seems easy at first. But when we dig a little deeper and grapple with less easy to measure aspects, such as socioeconomic status (see Aline Lerner’s response here), not to mention intersectionality, Deming’s observation seems closer to the truth.

Measuring inclusion is perhaps more critical since it seems to have a more profound business impact. Not to mention that improving diversity without any follow up deliberate action will most likely decrease inclusion. However, inclusion turns out to be more difficult to measure and improve.

Often stumped by this challenge, many HR organizations turn to their “silver bullet” measurement tool and attempt to use our all-purpose-hammer: the survey. Yet, as the folks at Cultivate so eloquently point out, survey data suffers from a myriad of human biases: from recency bias, through acquiescence bias, to self-reporting and social desirability bias. And I will further add some more “mechanical” challenges such as selection bias (partial participation) and proper statistical analysis of the results.

Supporting inclusion also requires a different “type” of measurement. Since improving inclusion requires human behavior change, feedback (measurement) needs to be a lot more frequent and timely in order to make a difference. Learning today that there was something that I could have done differently two months ago is not so useful. Learning about it immediately, or even an hour later can be transformational, since the window for corrective action is still open.

To find a solution to this conundrum, we need to take a slight detour and familiarize ourselves with a much lesser known tool in our toolbox, that’s currently undergoing a profound revolution.

Organizational Network Analysis

Organizational Network Analysis (ONA for short) is the process of studying the relational and communication patterns within an organization through the use of models (graphs) of said relationships/interactions and conducting analysis, often statistical in nature, do derive various insights at both the group and individual levels. For example, these models/graphs, often referred to as “sociograms”, can be used to evaluate the overall level of “closeness”/”density” of relationships inside the organization by measuring the average “distance” (number of connections) that it takes to get from any one place in the network to any other place in the network. At the individual level, it is fairly easy to identify “outliers” — the people that are least connected to everyone else in the organization. A slightly more comprehensive overview of ONA can be found here.

While the roots of ONA can be traced all the way back to the work of Emile Durkheim in the early 1890s, real research began in earnest in the 1930s and made significant leaps forward in the 1970s and 1990s as more sophisticated technology unlocked more complex analysis of the data. Today, ONA is offered as a standard service by both top-4 consulting shops like Deloitte and boutique consulting firms specializing purely in ONA like Culture Optix and Tree Intelligence. 

But ONA never achieved wide, mainstream adoption. Most HR organizations today don’t even know that the tool exists, let alone use it in their day-to-day practice. I believe this is due to two main reasons:

  1. The cost of ONA in terms of time, energy and effort remained high. Even though technology helped in the analysis portion, the data collection process required for the construction and update of the sociograms remained mostly analog, relying heavily on survey data with all their drawbacks covered above, significantly constraining both the type of data that can be collected and the frequency by which it can be collected.
  2. The benefits of ONA remained fuzzy. Partly due to the data collection constraints, partly due to the relevant research still being in its adolescence stage, and partly due to not-so-great product management, the value proposition of using ONA and the types of organizational challenges that it can help address remained too broad and too shallow, never scratching a big enough itch to justify the complex execution and analysis.

But all of this is now changing.

The digital revolution

In the last two decades organizations have been undergoing a digital revolution in the way they collaborate and work together: from the pervasive use of email, through video conferencing, to instant messaging. Furthermore, many analog activities still generate some digital “footprint” — from calendar invites to digital work artifacts like documents, spreadsheets, and code.

This revolution opened the floodgates of data towards a new era of ONA in which not only can sociograms be constructed and maintained almost effortlessly, in real-time and with no human bias, but also the richness and granularity of the data that can be analyzed exceed by orders of magnitude what was possible a decade ago.

Companies like CrossLead, Kumu/Compass, and Cultivate are the early pioneers that have started exploring this rich sea of opportunities.

And companies like Humanyze continue to push the envelope even further by creating solutions that deliberately generate digital footprints to the analog interactions that currently don’t organic ones.

DIB + ONA = 

By now you should probably be able to tell where I’m going with this:

I believe improving inclusion is the “killer app”, the “thin edge of the wedge” if you will, for the broad adoption of next-generation ONA. 

ONA, with its analytical orientation towards identifying individual and group relational patterns, and the ability to perform it seamlessly on an on-going basis is perfectly positioned to close the currently-broken feedback loop and provide us with the close-to-real-time feedback needed to drive real behavior change.

ONA can help us identify the overall state and trend, as well as both the “bright spots” (to learn from) and “hot zones” (to help) across many inclusive dimensions including but not limited to:

  • Use of gendered language
  • Communication silos and the people who connect them
  • Outsiders and bridges
  • Balance of communication frequency across teammates
  • Balance of communication time/reciprocity
  • Communication inside/outside working hours
  • Communication sentiment (positive, negative, etc.)

Marrying DIB and ONA presents an opportunity to leverage the heightened awareness around this hot-button, critical topic and gain an edge in a red hot super-competitive market for both HR leaders and software vendors alike.

Real-time, Continuous DIB (Diversity, Inclusion, and Belonging)

Mindset and Heartset [Hagel]

I truly enjoyed this short piece by John Hagel who leads the Center for the Edge:

Mindset and Heartset

In this piece, Hagel makes an observation that deeply resonates with me on the current focus of the conversation around personal and organizational development:

The key assumption in the room was that it was all about the mind. They assumed that our assumptions and beliefs shape what we feel and what we do. In this view of the world, emotions are a distraction, or at best a second order effect, and it’s ultimately all about our mind.

He then offers an alternative viewpoint:

Our emotions aren’t just derivative of our assumptions and beliefs. Emotions shape our perceptions, assumptions, thoughts and beliefs as well. If you try to shape assumptions and beliefs without paying attention to the emotions that already exist, good luck.

We need to move beyond mindset and expand our horizons to address our heartset: what are the emotions that filter how we perceive the world, shape what we believe and influence how we act?

The rest of the piece explores Hagel’s thesis around the origin of the mindset-focused viewpoint, and an attempt at sketching out a path forward that better integrates “heartset”, primarily making the case for the power of narratives in shaping emotions. The latter ties in well with the piece from two weeks ago about wise interventions.

While I read Hagel’s description of the current mindset-focused conversation as somewhat critical, I view it through a more appreciative lens: as the first step in breaking into the behaviorist view of human beings as a black box and a bold attempt to develop a more holistic view of humans that takes “what’s inside” into account.

Having said that, I agree that the mindset-focused narrative is incomplete, and the relationship between thoughts and emotions is bi-directional: thoughts shape emotions and emotions shape thoughts. If we think of emotions as labels that we’ve assigned to a subset of sensory, felt experiences perhaps the broader aspiration should be to integrate the cognitive perception (mindset) with a more holistic somatic perception into a unified view of human experience.

Mindset and Heartset [Hagel]

OrgHacking 2018 — year in review

The 4th full year of OrgHacking is coming to an end, and with it comes my 4th “year in review” post.

I’ll divide the post into two sections: the first will cover the insights from reflecting on the content I published this year; the second will organize the year’s post according to the emerging themes.

1. Key insights:

  • “Policies and Practices” was the biggest theme for this year. Under which I grouped the most practical, “you can do this thing tomorrow” kind of posts. While nowhere near to be the majority of posts in this blog, it’s important to me to keep the more theoretical and abstract posts grounded to reality with pieces of more actionable advice.
  • The second biggest emergent theme ended up being “feedback”, in both its formal and informal forms. And often times, as a proxy for broader insights on interpersonal interaction and collaboration. Feedback also connects to one of the key thematic questions I posed to myself at the beginning of the year, as I’ve started exploring the role it plays in supporting and hindering the developmental growth in support of higher performance and better collaboration. More on that in 2019.
  • I’ve also made some pretty satisfying progress on understanding the science of good decision-making.
  • Polarities are playing a growing role in my mental models toolbox, proving clarity and insights in exploring important issues. I’m also starting to notice some of their limits/friction points. More on that in 2019 as well.
  • The two topics that I’ve spent most of my professional time on: recruiting and DIB (Diversity, Inclusion and Belonging) did not yield a proportional amount of posts.
  • My recruiting work did not lead to any transformative changes in my thinking on the subject, just to further refinements and fine-tuning of some of the key challenges in that space on which I’ve written more at length in 2017. It did, however, gets credit for shifting my mental model of the connection between the world of sports and the world of work from metaphor to analogy, which will serve as the basis for much of the research that I’ll be doing in 2019.
  • My thinking on DIB has been gradually evolving, though I seem to be converging on a rather contrarian approach that focuses on “drawing a larger circle” rather than empowering marginalized groups. And on emphasizing sameness rather than differences. More in 2019.
  • The two pieces that had the most profound impact on my thinking were “ Tribalism and Intractable Conflicts [Ripley et al]” (polarities, for example, turn a simple, dichotomous good/bad narrative, into a more complex and ambiguous spectrum) and “Principles of Deliberate Practice [Ericsson and Pool]”. In 2019, I intend to spend a significant chunk of my time exploring the application of deliberate practice in the world of work and general and the role of managers in particular.

2. Thematic categorization:

Policies and practices

Feedback

Mental models

Decision-making

Practice, experimentation, failure

Psychology

Distinctions:

Recruiting

Mindsets

DIB

Other

OrgHacking 2018 — year in review

Wise Interventions [Wilson & Walton]

Oh, the joys of knowledge rabbit holes! One of my favorite experiences in my curious quest. Here’s how this one played out:

A few weeks back, I listened to an episode of Sam Harris’ Waking Up podcast in which he was having a conversation with Johann Hari. While the overall topic was super fascinating, and led me to listen to the audio version of Hari’s “Lost Connections”, one small reference made during the conversation truly caught my ear. Johann mentioned a book that he had read and Sam was intending to read called Strangers to Ourselves by Timothy Wilson, a social psychologist out of UVA. At a high level, Wilson’s book is making the case that the existence of our subconscious creates a limit to our ability to know ourselves through self-reflection. This thesis piqued my interest, since around the same time, I was having a conversation with a group of friends about what I now believe is the other pole in a polarity: the limits of feedback (more on that in a separate post).

But I wasn’t sure that I was willing to commit the time to read a 273-page book around this premise, so I did what every person in my position would do: check out Wilson’s academic publications and track down the paper that the book was based on. And while I did find that paper, I also found the collaborative work Wilson did with Gregory Walton which they’ve labeled “Wise Interventions”, and best summarized by this article:

The Science of “Wise Interventions”: Applying a Social Psychological Perspective to Address Problems and Help People Flourish

At its core, Wilson & Walton’s thesis is a new approach to designing interventions that will lead to positive behavior change in their target audience, supplementing two pre-existing approaches:

  • Situation-centric approaches — assume that to flourish people need to be in situations that help them succeed rather than hinder them. Situation-centric interventions aim to change that situation, for example, by increasing resources for schools, relocating families, changing incentive structures, or making better choices easier.
  • Person-centric approaches — attribute poor outcomes to a deficiency or lack of capacity (cognitive abilities, self-control, etc.) in people, and assume that the best way to improve outcomes is to build this capacity. Person-centric interventions tend to involve some capacity-building education.

Their new approach is based on the premise that people’s behavior is driven by the way they interpret a given situation — the way they make sense, or meaning out of it. And that meaning is often pliable and can be altered (leading to a different behavior) using a wise intervention.

Our meaning-making “engine” will interpret a given situation in a way that serves three underlying motives:

  1. The need to understand — make sense of things around us in a way that allows us to predict behavior and guide our own action effectively.
  2. The need for self-integrity — view ourselves positively and believe that we are adequate, moral, competent and coherent.
  3. The need for belonging — feel connected to others, accepted, included and valued.

This, in turn, yields four techniques for changing meaning by shifting people’s understanding, sense of personal adequacy and/or sense of connection to others:

  1. Direct labeling — provide a positive label that defines what might otherwise be an ambiguous aspect of themselves, a situation, or others: “this test is meant to help me, the teacher, assess my teaching style” (rather than assess the students’ performance).
  2. Prompting new meaning — provide the basis for a new way of thinking about the self, a situation, or others, but not offer or impose the meaning itself: asking questions, altering a situation or providing new information.
  3. Increasing commitment through action — create situations that encourage people to act in accordance with a new idea, thereby reinforcing that idea. For example a “saying-is-believing” intervention.
  4. Active reflection exercise — structured exercises, often writing exercises, that help people understand their personal experiences from a new perspective.

Wilson & Walton have gone a step further and structured the +300 interventions that they’ve reviewed in their research into a database, categorizing them by the meaning-making need they are meant to address, the domain in which they were applied and the type of intervention used.

Avid readers of this blog may see the same similarity I’ve picked up on between the overall intervention-type framing the Wilson & Waldon are using, and a framework I’ve covered about a year and a half ago in:

Situation-centric, person-centric and wise interventions map pretty neatly to the Path, the Rider and the Elephant respectively. And in many ways, they are making the same case for applying behavioral interventions that address all three components while making their own contribution to this body of work by offering a double-click into the Elephant box and the techniques that effectively engage it.

Wise Interventions [Wilson & Walton]

The Radical Conversation Cycle [Tamerius]

The Radical Conversation Cycle (RCC) is a neat framework developed by Karin Tamerius and the Smart Politics org and meant to help us have more productive and persuasive conversations with people who disagree with us.

It is beautifully illustrated by this nifty interactive conversation simulation:

How to Have a Conversation With Your Angry Uncle Over the Holidays

RCC is a 5-step cycle:

  1. Ask: Ask open-ended questions. Be curious about how the other person developed their beliefs. Spend more time asking questions than making statements.
  2. Listen: Pay very close attention. Listen to understand, not to respond. Try to hear the values and emotions being expressed as well as the words.
  3. Reflect: Paraphrase what you heard. Name the emotions and values expressed as well as the words. Once the other person feels heard and understood, you can move on to the next step.
  4. Agree: Express agreement with one or more things the other person said. It’s usually easiest to agree on values, goals, and emotions.
  5. Share: Present your point of view. In general, sharing a personal story is the most memorable and persuasive way to communicate your perspective.
The Radical Conversation Cycle [Tamerius]

Principles of Deliberate Practice [Ericsson and Pool]

In the Petriglieri post I authored a couple of months ago and just published, one line in particular deeply stuck with me.

In discussing why hard work in a professional setting rarely translates to growth, or in other words, why suffering if often mistaken for sacrifice, Petriglieri made the following observation:

We seldom seek to understand and work on our limits as seriously as athletes do

It resonated with me so much since I’ve come to believe that professional sports, and other non-work professional fields (music, entertainment, etc.) are a great source of inspiration for the future of work. In fact, I can’t even take credit for that prediction. Peter Senge in The Fifth Discipline already made that observation, more than 30 years ago:

Yet, this is exactly what teams in modern organizations lack. Imagine trying to build a great theater ensemble or a great symphony orchestra without rehearsal. Imagine a championship sports team without practice. In fact, the process whereby such teams learn is through continual movement between practice and performance, practice, performance, practice again, performance again.

Curious to explore this further, I started off by checking out Endure, the book that Petriglieri referenced in his piece. But it was too physiologically-focused to be of much use. Fortunately, it did remind me that I had another book sitting in my queue, which proved out to be way more relevant: Ericsson and Pool’s

Peak: Secrets from the new science of expertise

The book details the genesis, development, and application of Deliberate Practice.

Sadly, Ericsson et el.’s work first became popular when it was referenced in Malcolm Gladwell’s book Outliers under the catchier name that Gladwell had given it: “The 10,000 hours rule”. It’s sad because as Ericsson points out:

Unfortunately, this rule — which is the only thing that many people today know about the effects of practice — is wrong in several ways.

The path to expertise is not simply doing something for 10,000 hours. It requires practicing in a very particular way, Deliberate Practice, which adheres to the following principles:

  1. Deliberate practice develops skills that other people have already figured out how to do and for which effective training techniques have been established. The practice regimen should be designed and overseen by a teacher or a coach who is familiar with the abilities of experts performers and with how those abilities can best be developed.
  2. Deliberate practice takes place outside of one’s comfort zone and requires a student to constantly try things that are just beyond his or her current abilities. Thus it demands near-maximal effort, which is generally not enjoyable.
  3. Deliberate practice involves well-defined, specific goals and often involves improving some aspect of the target performance; it is not aimed at some vague, overall improvement. Once an overall goal has been set, a teacher or coach will develop a plan for making a series of small changes that will add up to the desired larger change. Improving some aspect of the target performance allows a performer to see that his or her performances have been improved by the training.
  4. Deliberate practice is deliberate, that is, it requires the person’s full attention and conscious actions. It isn’t enough to simply follow a teacher’s or coach’s directions. The student must concentrate on the specific goal of his or her practice activity so that adjustments can be made to control practice.
  5. Deliberate practice involves feedback and modification of effort in response to that feedback. Early in the training process, much of the feedback will come from the teacher or coach, who will monitor progress, point out problems, and offer ways to address those problems. With time and experience, students must learn to monitor themselves, spot mistakes, and adjust accordingly.
  6. Deliberate practice both produces and depends on effective mental representations. Improving performance goes hand in hand with improving mental representations; as one’s performance improves, the representations become more detailed and effective, in turn making it possible to improve even more. Mental representations make it possible to monitor how one is doing, both in practice and in actual performance. They show the right way to do something and allow one to notice when doing something wrong and correct it.
  7. Deliberate practice nearly always involves building or modifying previously acquired skills by focusing on particular aspects of those skills and working to improve them specifically; over time this step-by-step improvement will eventually lead to expert performance. Because of the way that new skills are built on top of existing skills, it is important for teachers to provide beginners with the correct fundamental skills in order to minimize the chances that the student will have to relearn those fundamental skills later when at a more advanced level.

Now evaluate any professional training that you’ve ever attended, not to mention “learning-by-doing” or “on-the-job training” catchphrases, using these principles and you’re likely going to reach the same conclusion as I did:

There is a massive effectiveness gap in the way we currently build professional expertise in almost any domain.

The good news is that the deliberate practice principles not only show us the gaps, they also provide us with a roadmap towards developing more effective expertise building experiences and strategies. More on this will likely follow in some future posts.

Principles of Deliberate Practice [Ericsson and Pool]