When do you feel Ikigai?

I stumbled upon the Americanized version of this image (replacing “Ikigai” with “Purpose”) on my Facebook feed a few weeks back (oh, the irony) and it really stuck with me. When it came up again this week, though a different channel, it was time for a post.

According to Wikipedia:

Ikigai (生き甲斐, pronounced [ikiɡai]) is a Japanese concept that means “a reason for being.”… Everyone, according to Japanese culture, has an ikigai. Finding it requires a deep and often lengthy search of self. Such a search is important to the cultural belief that discovering one’s ikigai brings satisfaction and meaning to life… “people can feel real ikigai only when, on the basis of personal maturity, the satisfaction of various desires, love and happiness, encounters with others, and a sense of the value of life, they proceed toward self-realization.”

Despite the visualization most likely being a gross simplification of the deeper meaning of the word, that sweet-spot of “what you love” + “what the world needs” + “what you can be paid for” + “what you are good at” is a tough one to find for most people.

I find it to be a useful, self-reflective, diagnostic tool. Understanding where you currently fall short in pursuit of your Ikigai (which circles don’t yet overlap in your life), gives you a focused direction for the next step towards that ideal.

When do you feel Ikigai?

Rhizomatic Organizations [Rao]

Breaking Smart: Frankenstacks and Rhizomes by Venkatesh Rao

I’ve been a Breaking Smart subscriber for almost a year now and this is exactly the type of post that made my subscribe in the first place.

If you skip the Ethereum intro, and look beyond that IT-focused framing, you’re left with a fascinating concept.

Rao introduce the distinction between Rhizome — a structure that allow for multiple, non-hierarchical entry and exit points in data representation and interpretation — and Arborescent— as tructure following totalizing principles, binarism and dualism.

In the context of the organizations, while the transition from a hierarchical to a networked mental model is a hot trend in organizational design, both concepts remain in the realm of arborescent. Trying to capture the complex, multi-dimensional attributes of the organization in a reductionist, two-dimensional architecture. But what if we started looking at organizations as rhizomes?

Rao suggests that this leads to some interesting insights, and able to predict interesting phenomena that we’ve all encountered:

The archetypal action in a rhizomatic information architecture is cut-and-paste. The spreadsheet is the archetypal integration tool: a sort of generalized clipboard. There is a relationship here to the idea that the medium is the message, and Conway’s law (product structure mirrors org structure). Our information environments are becoming rhizomatic because our informational lives are becoming rhizomatic, and vice versa, in a chicken-and-egg loop.

There is perhaps a distinction between a n00b and an expert, but it is highly localized around specific corners of the rhizome. You can go from n00b to expert and back to n00b in 2 steps. In a traditional org, you can count the floors between the executive suite and say the shop floor where blue-collar workers build products on assembly lines. Authority falls as the elevator descends. n00b/expert relationships change slowly and predictably in space as you move. Expertise and authority turfs are simply connected and simply bounded. In a rhizome, in a move from point A to point B, relative knowledge and expertise might swing wildly. And the value of actions might swing wildly while you’re moving

A rhizome is also a high-friction space. Movement through a rhizome involves an unpredictable stream of transaction costs. Every journey is an obstacle course… Sometimes a single click moves mountains. Other times, you need to move mountains to do one tiny thing. Effort-outcome relationships get out of whack… In a rhizomatic world, if your expectations and work habits are built around architectural cleanliness, you will get deeply frustrated and be perennially frozen. If you can only navigate well-paved paths and clean, well-lit spaces, you’ll likely spend a lot of time in low-value, or even futile, ritualized behaviors while getting nothing done. You must be willing to adopt an opportunistic approach to navigating complexity, and switch from ugly hack to elegant beauty, from amateurish fumble to expert flourish, in an instant.

Rhizomatic Organizations [Rao]

Team Rhythms

I was inspired by Christina Wodtke’s “Design the Team you need to Succeed” to create my own version of the framework, filling-in some of the aspects that I felt were missing in the original version:

A team is a multi-disciplinary group that acts in a coordinated manner, over time, toward a shared goal. It is:

  • Bounded — Clear who is — and who is not — on the team
  • Stable — Membership is kept intact for some period of time
  • Interdependent — Members share accountability for a common purpose

High team performance requires working agreements among team members across 3 key dimensions:

  • Goals — Strategy, Initiatives, OKRs — the Why-What-How
  • Structures — Roles, processes and governance
  • Relationships — group norms, personal and interpersonal dynamics and growth

These working agreements are first defined when the team is formed, and then maintained and iterated upon through 3 operating rhythms: Perform (weekly), Reform (monthly) and Transform (quarterly).

Form Rhythm (kick-off workshop)

Target: establish working agreements needed for high team performance


  • Introduce Team Rhythms Framework
  • Define team type and purpose
  • Establish relationships and share growth areas
  • Set group norms
  • Delineate roles and decision making process(es)
  • Set shared goals for the quarter

Perform Rhythm (weekly)

Target: execute working agreements


  • Track performance indicators and confidence around goal completion
  • Coordinate actions and make decisions needed to make progress towards goals
  • Proactively maintain relationships and address detractors

Reform Rhythm (Monthly)

Target: refine/course-correct working agreements


  • Ratify big decisions (directional, rather that ones supporting coordination)
  • Gauge current team health and leverage low-hanging fruit opportunities
  • Create structured to invest in relationship building

Transform Rhythm (Quarterly)

Target: reflect on working agreements and overhaul / redesign if needed


  • Grade goals and set new ones
  • Identify foundational team health issues and map to explicit (new) goals
  • Provide team members with developmental feedback
Team Rhythms

A Working Class Manifesto [Kilpi]

The best way I can describe Esko Kilpi is as a “future of work philosopher”. And this is a prime example:

A working class manifesto

It’s a short read, arguing that in the era of knowledge work, the distinction between work and personal lives is a false dichotomy, and the tension is only if you choose to look at reality through a very particular lens.

A few memorable quotes:

We need to study the intersection of business strategy and personal narrative and use the new agenda to challenge our industrial age practices and flawed ways of thinking. We are accustomed to taking work home, but what would the opposite be? Knowledge work needs people who are more fully present, people with responsibility and ownership.

Post-industrial business is about doing meaningful things with meaningful people in a meaningful way.

A Working Class Manifesto [Kilpi]

The Psychological Costs of Pay-for-Performance [Larkin, Pierce & Gino]

“Pay-for-performance” or “incentive pay” has been a top-of-mind topic for me in recent months. It’s a pretty pervasive industry (best?) practice, especially for executives and sales people, and many companies use it quite extensively beyond the bounds of those two functions. To develop a more first-principled point of view on this topic, I did some research aiming to understand the origins of the concept and the boundaries/contexts in which evidence suggest it may not be effective. I found several good resources, the most rigorous one was a paper by Ian Larkin, Lamar Pierce and Francesca Gino titled:

The Psychological Costs of Pay-for-Performance: Implications for the Strategic Compensation of Employees

But I’ve also used a slew of less rigorous resources, including:


Pay-for-performance or incentive pay is the practice of tying additional compensation to the achievement of a well-defined, measurable outcome. As opposed to a more permanent, long-lasting compensation change like a promotion.

Common examples:

  • Closing a sales deal
  • Completing a project on time
  • Hitting a certain target for a metric

Agency Theory: the origins of incentive pay

Incentive pay became popular with the rise of Agency Theory in the late 1970s.

Agency Theory is based on a few core assumptions about companies and employees. Specifically that companies seek to maximize profits by motivating employee effort and attracting more highly skilled employees, while minimizing salary costs. And that employees seek to maximize utility by increasing income while minimizing efforts.

Agency Theory also takes into account some information asymmetries in the dynamic between companies and employees that give employees an advantage over companies. Specifically, that employees know their own effort exertion (while companies have imperfect information) and that employees know their skill level (while companies have imperfect information).

Taking those assumptions and information asymmetries into account, Agency Theory suggests that companies overcome these asymmetries by providing incentives for employees to exert effort and self-select by skill level. For example, by offering a low guaranteed salary with a large performance element, a company can incentivize higher effort from all employees, but it can also attract and retain employees with high skills, while ‘sorting away’ those with low skills.

Insights from Agency Theory:

  1. Employees work harder when their pay is based on performance.
  2. Companies are more likely to use performance-based pay when they have less information about actual employee effort.
  3. Companies are more likely to use performance-based pay when they have less information about employee skill level, and/or as employee skill level is more heterogeneous.
  4. Companies are more likely to use team-based performance pay vs. individual-based pay when coordination across employees is important, when free riding is less likely, or when monitoring costs are low.

Research in Psychology and Decision Research

However, since the 1970s research in psychology and decision research have painted a more nuanced picture of the dynamic between companies and employees. Two elements in particular, social comparison and overconfidence play a pivotal role in that dynamic.

Social comparison theory introduces considerable costs associated with individual pay-for-performance systems, because it argues that people evaluate their own abilities and opinions in comparison to referent others. Generally, people seek and are affected by social comparisons with people who are similar to them gaining information about their own performance.

People also tend to be overconfident about their own abilities and too optimistic about their futures. Overconfidence is thought to take at least three forms:

  1. People consistently express unwarranted subjective certainty in their personal and social predictions.
  2. They commonly overestimate their own ability.
  3. They tend to overestimate their ability relative to others.

People tend to be overconfident about their ability on tasks they perform very frequently, find easy, or are familiar with. Conversely, people tend to be underconfident on difficult tasks or those they seldom carry out. This tendency has strong implications for overconfidence in work settings, since work inherently involves tasks in which employees have strong domain expertise in.

The above refines the assumptions about companies and employees. Specifically, that Maximize profits for companies also requires minimizing non-wage costs (counter-productive work behaviors), and that maximizing utility for employees also requires minimizing perceived inequality.

The information asymmetries should also be refined to take into account the fact that employees perception of their effort and skill level are biased (while companies have imperfect information).

Insights from Psychology and Decision Research: 

  1. Perceived inequity through wage comparison, compounded by overconfidence bias, reduces the effort benefits of individual pay-for-performance compensation systems.
  2. Perceived inequity through wage comparison, compounded by overconfidence bias, introduces additional costs from sabotage and attrition in individual pay-for performance compensation systems.
  3. Perceived inequity arising through random shocks in pay (economic downturn, weather, client going bankrupt) introduces additional costs from effort, sabotage, and attrition in individual pay-for-performance compensation systems
  4. Overconfidence bias reduces the sorting benefits of individual pay-for-performance compensation systems (low skill employees, will still self-select into a pay-for-performance scheme)

Alternatives to individual pay-for-performance

After incorporating insights from psychology and decision research, individual pay-for-performance seems less like the holy grail that Agency Theory made it to be. Are there better alternatives? Larkin, Pierce & Gino looked at a couple:

  • Team-based compensation: additional compensation is tied to the achievement of team goals/objectives and is shared among the team members.
  • Scaled wages: employees are compensated in relatively tight ‘bands’ based largely on seniority.

And concluded that:

  1. Team-based compensation reduces costs of social comparison when individual contribution is not highly heterogeneous within the team.
  2. Team-based compensation only resolves problems of overconfidence in individual pay-for-performance systems if the actual contribution of teammates is observable.
  3. Scaled wages have lower social comparison costs than team-based and individual-based compensation systems.
  4. Scale wages reduce costs of overconfidence in individual- and team-based pay-for-performance.

In Conclusion

Just like many other issues pertaining to the complex problem of human collaboration the answer to whether pay-for-performance is effective, is not a definitive “yes” or “no”, but a more nuanced one, depending on the specific context in which pay-for-performance is used.

Pay-for-performance will be more effective if:

  • Work requires low cognitive load
  • Outcomes are very controllable (effort and outcome are highly correlated)
  • Outcomes are easily attributable – it is easy to separate out individual contributions which led to a certain outcome
  • Overconfidence bias is minimal or non-existent
  • Social comparison is limited or non-existent
  • Global optimum can easily be decomposed to pre-set individual outcomes

Pay-for-performance will be less effective if:

  • Work requires high cognitive load
  • Outcomes are not very controllable (effort and outcome are loosely correlated)
  • Outcomes are difficult to attribute
  • Overconfidence bias is meaningful
  • Social comparison exists
  • Global optimum cannot be easily decomposed to pre-set individual outcomes
The Psychological Costs of Pay-for-Performance [Larkin, Pierce & Gino]

The “What?” Stack [Davies]

Credit: Charles Davies

A wonderful piece by Charles Davies called “Why Your Purpose is a What not a Why

Charles makes a pretty compelling case of getting rid of a hefty portion of business jargon captured in terms like: mission, vision, goal, outcomes, etc. and replace them with one simple word: What

They all attempt to capture the same thing: what we do. The only thing that changes is the timeframe we’re referring to. Two additional terms allows us to traverse various timeframes: Why (to what end?) expands the timeframe, and How (by what means?) shrinks it.

You can navigate the stack from any starting point moving either up (longer timeframe) by asking “Why?” or down (shorter timeframe) by asking “How?”.

An example from my current domain, demonstrating the edge cases:

What: Enable all children to reach to reach their full potential

How: By making the best education the most affordable one

How: By creating a networked school system with a strong network effect

How: By building a digital platform which enables progressive education practices

How: By creating a capability for educators to perform in-line, competency-based assessments (rather than rely on standardized tests)

How: By building a feature that enables an educator to capture a student’s work in real-time

What: Build a feature that enables an educator to capture a student’s work in real time

Why: To create a capability for educator to perform in-line, competency-based assessments (rather than rely on standardized tests)

Why: To build a digital platform that which enables progressive education practices

Why: To create a networked school system with a strong network effect

Why: To make the best education the most affordable one

Why: To enable all children to reach their full potential

The “What?” Stack [Davies]

From Lean Startup to Domain Mastery Startup

First came the “I have a great idea” startups. A heroic founder will come up with a great idea on how to go about solving a particular problem. A few years and a few millions of dollar later, the team emerges with a product, only to find out that nobody thinks their product really solves the problem; or even worse — that nobody thinks that the problem they have attempted to solve is a real one.

Then came the Lean Startup movement, fully embracing the fact that a startup is an organization meant to search for a sustainable business model, and the best way to do so, is through a disciplined application of the scientific method:

In a nutshell, a startup is a hypothesis testing machine.

While a massive step in the right direction, I believe it is an insufficient one, since the methodology ignores a critical ingredient in this process. To extend the machine metaphor a little further: similar to other machines, the quality of the output (validated/invalidated hypothesis) is not just a factor of the quality of the machine, but also of the quality of the inputs (hypothesis formulated). If you’re making coffee with the best espresso machine out there, but using low quality coffee beans — you’re still going to get bad coffee. The quality of the coffee (output) is constrained by the quality of the beans (input). Or to use a different metaphor: you’re still throwing darts at the dart board turned-around and blindfolded, you just gotten very good at throwing the darts quickly and lifting the blindfold after every throw to see if you’ve hit your mark.

Talking to your customers is the simplistic solution to this problem. Your customers can be incredibly useful in helping you validate your problem hypothesis (after all, it’s their problem you’re trying to solve), and on rare occasions, they can also help you formulate a better problem hypothesis. But more often than not, they will not be able to help you in formulating your solution hypothesis. Just because you have the problem, doesn’t mean that you have any idea how to solve it. To use an intentionally extreme example: just because you have cancer, doesn’t mean that you can help me find what might be the cure. This logic also applies for the people who are part of the startup: just because you suffer from the same problem you’re trying to solve, doesn’t necessarily make you any better than your (future) customers in formulating hypotheses around solutions that might work. Sure, you may get lucky in your guesses, but there’s a better way.

So what is that missing ingredient? I’d argue that it’s true mastery in the problem domain. Deep understanding of the root causes behind the problem, what’s already been tried and worked/didn’t work and under which circumstances, where the ecosystem as a whole is heading and why, etc. You get the point. And if you, dear founder, are not the master of the problem domain in which you operate — find someone who is and get them on your team. Not as a board member. Not as a part-time adviser. But as a full-time member of the team, in there with you, in the trenches, informing and refining your hypothesis testing machine on a daily basis. This is, in my opinion, one of the most critical ways to de-risk your search for a sustainable business model, and one that is well worth investing in.

It’s time to move past Lean Startups, and start moving towards Domain Mastery Startups.

From Lean Startup to Domain Mastery Startup